by Henry Marsh 豆瓣 / 豆瓣 (中文版)
Vlad the Impaler [弗拉德三世](<https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BC%97%E6%8B%89%E5%BE%B7%E4%B8%89%E4%B8%96>) 弗拉德三世·德拉库拉·采佩什（1431年11月或12月－1476年12月）。 (罗马尼亚) 瓦拉几亚大公.“采佩什”在罗马尼亚语中的意思是「穿刺」，这是由于他酷爱以穿刺刑折磨人，故被称作穿刺者弗拉德。他也是著名的吸血鬼傳說「德古拉伯爵」的原型。 Joe Bloggs /dʒəʊ ˈblɒɡz/ noun a name for a hypothetical average man. "what goes on in the pits is a million miles away from what happens when Joe Bloggs puts his car in for a service"
Robin Dunbar. 罗宾·I·M·邓巴（英語：Robin Ian MacDonald Dunbar，1947年6月28日－） 是一位英国人类学家和演化心理學家，专攻灵长类的行为，知名于提出了[邓巴数](<https://oogami.notion.site/Admissions-Life-as-a-brain-surgeon-ebecc24068d54c87a5263e9f28693fc7>)。 邓巴数（英語：Dunbar's number），也稱150定律，指能與某個人維持緊密人際關係的人數上限，通常人們認為是150。这里的人际关系是指某个人知道其他人是谁并且了解那些人之间的关系。支持者认为超过这个人数上限的团队，需要更加严格的规则，法律以及强制性规范来维持稳定性和凝聚力。鄧巴數並沒有精確的數值，它處於100到230之間，而通常人們使用150。邓巴数首先是英国的人类学家罗宾·邓巴於1990年代提出，是新皮质的大小决定的，并因此成为了一个团队规模的限制。新皮质处理能力决定了能与某个人维持紧密人际关系的人数上限。在這樣的團體中，每個人都認識彼此且知道彼此的關係。此外，这个数量包括熟悉的老同学和老同事，也就是說實際的親密的朋友數量會更少，直至接近個位數。
Namaste: [那摩斯戴](<https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%82%A3%E6%91%A9%E6%96%AF%E6%88%B4>)（梵語：नमस्ते，羅馬化：namaste；或Namaskar、Namaskaram），又譯作南無斯特，是印度人常用的问候语，梵语原义为“向你鞠躬致意”。在向别人说这问候语时，通常还会将雙手合攏置于胸前，并微微点头。这一动作被称为合十手印（Añjali Mudrā或Pranamasana）。在不说话时也可以做此动作，表示相同的含义。
But I also thought of the research into bonobos (previously known as pygmy chimpanzees), our closest evolutionary relatives, which shows that they have compassion and kindness, a sense of fairness and console each other over pain – at least for their own group. They have not been told to do this by priests or philosophers or teachers, it is part of their genetic nature, and it is reasonable to conclude that the same applies to us.
[Endowment effect](<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endowment_effect>) [禀赋效应](<https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%A6%80%E8%B5%8B%E6%95%88%E5%BA%94>)或厌恶剥夺(英語：Endowment effect)，形容当一个人拥有某项物品或资产的时候，他对该物品或资产的价值评估要大于没有拥有这项物品或资产的时候。可稱紅豆效應 这一现象常常用于行为經濟学的分析中，并与损失厌恶的理论相联系。由于禀赋效应，人们在决策过程中，往往会产生偏见，导致对于规避风险的考虑远远大于对于追逐利益的考虑，因此人们在出卖物品或资产时，往往索价要比其本身更高的价值。
I had noticed that the sickest patients on the ITU, the ones expected to die or become brain-dead, had often disappeared by the next morning. I was reluctant to ask what had happened, and it was some time before I learnt that usually the families would take the patients home, hand-bagging (手工按压呼吸气管气袋) them if necessary, so that they could die with some dignity within the family home, with their loved ones around them, rather than in the cruel impersonality of the hospital. It struck me as a very humane solution to the problem, although sadly unimaginable back home.
My mother’s sister was an enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the Nazis, and her brother joined the Luftwaffe, although from a love of flying and not from any political conviction. I do not know how my mother knew that Hitler’s regime was evil. It is only since her death, by reading about Germany at that time (in translation, given my shameful lack of German) that I have come to understand just how remarkable was her defection. Her decision to leave Germany – a country with the deepest respect for authority and on the br nk of war – would have been seen by many as treason. It seems obvious and easy in retrospect, but how I wish she was still here so that I could talk to her about this. 作者的母亲（德国人）因为反对纳粹，在二战爆发前夕毅然离开了自己的祖国，在当时这种行为可能被很多人指责为叛国。然而历史将会证明，在一个独裁政权国家，不爱国是最大的正义。
FRCS examination: Fellowship of the Royal Colleges of Surgeon, a professional qualification to practise as a senior surgeon in Ireland or the United Kingdom. PVs [vaginal examinations]。分娩时的一种常见的妇科检查，医生或助产妇将手指伸入孕妇阴道内以感知宫颈(cervix)扩张程度。
SBU: The Security Service of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Служба безпеки України, romanized: Sluzhba bezpeky Ukrainy) or SBU (Ukrainian: СБУ). 烏克蘭國家安全局
I spoke of how difficult it is for doctors to be honest. We learn this as soon as we put on our white coats after qualifying. Once we are responsible for patients, even at the lowest level of the medical hierarchy, we must start to dissemble. There is nothing more frightening for a patient than a doctor, especially a young one, who is lacking in confidence. Furthermore, patients want hope, as well as treatment So we quickly learn to deceive, to pretend to a greater level of competence and knowledge than we know to be the case, and try to shield our patients a little from the frightening reality they often face. And the best way of deceiving others, of course, is to deceive yourself. You will not then give yourself away with all the subtle signs which we are so good at identifying when people lie to us. So self-deception, I told the Ukrainians, is an important and necessary clinical skill we must all acquire at an early stage in our careers. But as we get older, and become genuinely experienced and competent, it is something we must start to unlearn. Senior doctors, just like senior politicians, can easily become corrupted by the power they hold and by the lack of people around them who will speak truth to power. And yet we continue to make mistakes throughout our careers, and we always learn more from failure than from success. Success teaches us nothing, and easily makes us complacent. But we will only learn from our mistakes if we admit to them – at least to ourselves, if not to our colleagues and patients. And to admit to our mistakes we must fight against the self-deception that was so necessary and important at the beginning of our careers.